December 19, 2006

Bind: Address Already in Use

Bind: Address Already in Use

Or How to Avoid this Error when Closing TCP Connections

Normal Closure

In order for a network connection to close, both ends have to send FIN (final) packets, which indicate they will not send any additional data, and both ends must ACK (acknowledge) each other's FIN packets. The FIN packets are initiated by the application performing a close(), a shutdown(), or an exit(). The ACKs are handled by the kernel after the close() has completed. Because of this, it is possible for the process to complete before the kernel has released the associated network resource, and this port cannot be bound to another process until the kernel has decided that it is done.

TCP State Diagram
Figure 1

Figure 1 shows all of the possible states that can occur during a normal closure, depending on the order in which things happen. Note that if you initiate closure, there is a TIME_WAIT state that is absent from the other side. This TIME_WAIT is necessary in case the ACK you sent wasn't received, or in case spurious packets show up for other reasons. I'm really not sure why this state isn't necessary on the other side, when the remote end initiates closure, but this is definitely the case. TIME_WAIT is the state that typically ties up the port for several minutes after the process has completed. The length of the associated timeout varies on different operating systems, and may be dynamic on some operating systems, however typical values are in the range of one to four minutes.

If both ends send a FIN before either end receives it, both ends will have to go through TIME_WAIT.

Normal Closure of Listen Sockets

A socket which is listening for connections can be closed immediately if there are no connections pending, and the state proceeds directly to CLOSED. If connections are pending however, FIN_WAIT_1 is entered, and a TIME_WAIT is inevitable.

Note that it is impossible to completely guarantee a clean closure here. While you can check the connections using a select() call before closure, a tiny but real possibility exists that a connection could arrive after the select() but before the close().

Abnormal Closure

If the remote application dies unexpectedly while the connection is established, the local end will have to initiate closure. In this case TIME_WAIT is unavoidable. If the remote end disappears due to a network failure, or the remote machine reboots (both are rare), the local port will be tied up until each state times out. Worse, some older operating do not implement a timeout for FIN_WAIT_2, and it is possible to get stuck there forever, in which case restarting your server could require a reboot.

If the local application dies while a connection is active, the port will be tied up in TIME_WAIT. This is also true if the application dies while a connection is pending.

Strategies for Avoidance


You can use setsockopt() to set the SO_REUSEADDR socket option, which explicitly allows a process to bind to a port which remains in TIME_WAIT (it still only allows a single process to be bound to that port). This is the both the simplest and the most effective option for reducing the "address already in use" error.

Oddly, using SO_REUSEADDR can actually lead to more difficult "address already in use" errors. SO_REUSADDR permits you to use a port that is stuck in TIME_WAIT, but you still can not use that port to establish a connection to the last place it connected to. What? Suppose I pick local port 1010, and connect to port 300, and then close locally, leaving that port in TIME_WAIT. I can reuse local port 1010 right away to connect to anywhere except for port 300.

A situation where this might be a problem is if my program is trying to find a reserved local port (<>SO_REUSADDR, then each time I run the program on my machine, I'll keep getting the same local reserved port, even if it is stuck in TIME_WAIT, and I risk getting a "connect: Address already in use" error if I go back to any place I've been to in the last few minutes. The solution here is to avoid SO_REUSEADDR.

Some folks don't like SO_REUSEADDR because it has a security stigma attached to it. On some operating systems it allows the same port to be used with a different address on the same machine by different processes at the same time. This is a problem because most servers bind to the port, but they don't bind to a specific address, instead they use INADDR_ANY (this is why things show up in netstat output as *.8080). So if the server is bound to *.8080, another malicious user on the local machine can bind to local-machine.8080, which will intercept all of your connections since it is more specific. This is only a problem on multi-user machines that don't have restricted logins, it is NOT a vulnerability from outside the machine. And it is easily avoided by binding your server to the machine's address.

Additionally, others don't like that a busy server may have hundreds or thousands of these TIME_WAIT sockets stacking up and using kernel resources. For these reasons, there's another option for avoiding this problem.

Client Closes First

Looking at the diagram above, it is clear that TIME_WAIT can be avoided if the remote end initiates the closure. So the server can avoid problems by letting the client close first. The application protocol must be designed so that the client knows when to close. The server can safely close in response to an EOF from the client, however it will also need to set a timeout when it is expecting an EOF in case the client has left the network ungracefully. In many cases simply waiting a few seconds before the server closes will be adequate.

It probably makes more sense to call this method "Remote Closes First", because otherwise it depends on what you are calling the client and the server. If you are developing some system where a cluster of client programs sit on one machine and contact a variety of different servers, then you would want to foist the responsibility for closure onto the servers, to protect the resources on the client.

For example, I wrote a script that uses rsh to contact all of the machines on our network, and it does it in parallel, keeping some number of connections open at all times. rsh source ports are arbitrary available ports less than 1024. I initially used "rsh -n", which it turns out causes the local end to close first. After a few tests, every single free port less than 1024 was stuck in TIME_WAIT and I couldn't proceed. Removing the "-n" option causes the remote (server) end to close first (understanding why is left as an exercise for the reader), and should've eliminated the TIME_WAIT problem. However, without the -n, rsh can hang waiting for input. And, if you close input at the local end, this can again result in the port going into TIME_WAIT. I ended up avoiding the system-installed rsh program, and developing my own implementation in perl. My current implementation, multi-rsh, is available for download

Reduce Timeout

If (for whatever reason) neither of these options works for you, it may also be possible to shorten the timeout associated with TIME_WAIT. Whether this is possible and how it should be accomplished depends on the operating system you are using. Also, making this timeout too short could have negative side-effects, particularly in lossy or congested networks.

In Linux, issue the following command to set the timeout_timewait parameter to 30 seconds:
echo 30 > /proc/sys/net/ipv4/tcp_fin_timeout


November 13, 2006

Search Engine-Friendly URLs

Search Engine-Friendly URLs

By Chris Beasley
August 10th 2001

On today’s Internet, database driven or dynamic sites are very popular. Unfortunately the easiest way to pass information between your pages is with a query string. In case you don’t know what a query string is, it's a string of information tacked onto the end of a URL after a question mark.

So, what’s the problem with that? Well, most search engines (with a few exceptions - namely Google) will not index any pages that have a question mark or other character (like an ampersand or equals sign) in the URL. So all of those popular dynamic sites out there aren’t being indexed - and what good is a site if no one can find it?

The solution? Search engine friendly URLs. There are a few popular ways to pass information to your pages without the use of a query string, so that search engines will still index those individual pages. I'll cover 3 of these techniques in this article. All 3 work in PHP [1] with Apache [2] on Linux [3] (and while they may work in other scenarios, I cannot confirm that they do).

Method 1: PATH_INFO


If you look above this article on the address bar, you’ll see a URL like this: SitePoint actually uses the PATH_INFO method to create their dynamic pages.

Apache has a "look back" feature that scans backwards down the URL if it doesn’t find what it's looking for. In this case there is no directory or file called "12", so it looks for "999". But it find that there's not a directory or file called "999" either, so Apache continues to look down the URL and sees "article.php". This file does exist, so Apache calls up that script. Apache also has a global variable called $PATH_INFO that is created on every HTTP request. What this variable contains is the script that's being called, and everything to the right of that information in the URL. So in the example we've been using, $PATH_INFO will contain article.php/999/12.

So, you wonder, how do I query my database using article.php/999/12? First you have to split this into variables you can use. And you can do that using PHP’s explode function:

$var_array = explode("/",$PATH_INFO);

Once you do that, you’ll have the following information:

$var_array[0] = "article.php"

$var_array[1] = 999

$var_array[2] = 12

So you can rename $var_array[1] as $article and $var_array[2] as $page_num and query your database.


There was previously one major drawback to this method. Google, and perhaps other search engines, would not index pages set up in this manner, as they interpreted the URL as being malformed. I contacted a Software Developer at Google and made them aware of the problem and I am happy to announce that it is now fixed.

There is the potential that other search engines may ignore pages set up in this manner. While I don't know of any, I can't be certain that none do. If you do decide to use this method, be sure to monitor your server logs for spiders to ensure that your site is being indexed as it should.

Method 2: .htaccess Error Pages


The second method involves using the .htaccess file. If you're new to it, .htaccess is a file used to administer Apache access options for whichever directory you place it in. The server administrator has a better method of doing this using his or her configuration files, but since most of us don't own our own server, we don't have control over what the server administrator does. Now, the server admin can configure what users can do with their .htaccess file so this approach may not work on your particular server, however in most cases it will. If it doesn't, you should contact your server administrator.

This method takes advantage of .htaccess’ ability to do error handling. In the .htaccess file in whichever directory you wish to apply this method to, simply insert the following line:

ErrorDocument 404 /processor.php

Now make a script called processor.php and put it in that same directory, and you're done! Lets say you have the following URL: And again in this example "999" and "12" do not exist, however, as you don't specify a script anywhere in the directory path, Apache will create a 404 error. Instead of sending a generic 404 header back to the browser, Apache sees the ErrorDocument command in the .htaccess file and calls up processor.php.

Now, in the first example we used the $PATH_INFO variable, but that won’t work this time. Instead we need to use the $REQUEST_URI variable, which contains everything in the URL after the domain. So in this case, it contains: /directory/999/12/.

The first thing you need to do in processor.php is send a new HTTP header. Remember, Apache thought this was a 404 error, so it wants to tell the browser that it couldn’t find a page.

So, put the following line in your processor.php:

header("HTTP/1.1 200 OK");

At this time I need to point out an important fact. In the first example you could specify what script processed your URL. In this example all URLs must be processed by the same script, processor.php, which makes things a little different. Instead of creating different URLs based on what you want to do, such as article.php/999/12 or printarticle.php/999/12 you only have 1 script that must do both.

So you must decide what to do based on the information processor.php receives - more specifically, by counting how many parameters are passed. For instance on my site [4], I use this method to generate my pages: I know that if there's just one parameter, such as, that I need to load an author information page; if there are 2 parameters, such as, I know that I need to load a book information page; and finally if there are 3 parameters, such as, I know I need to load a chapter viewing page. Alternatively, you can simply use the first parameter to indicate the type of page to display, and then process the remaining parameters based on that.

There are 2 ways you can accomplish this task of counting parameters. First you need to use PHP’s explode function to divide up the $REQUEST_URI variable. So if $REQUEST_URI = /shakespeare/hamlet/3/:

$var_array = explode("/",$REQUEST_URI);

Now note that, because of the positioning of the /’ there are actually 5 elements in this array [5]. The first element, element 0, is blank, because it contains the information before the first /. The fifth element, element 4, is also blank, because it contains the information after the last /.

So now we need to count the elements in our $var_array. PHP has two functions that let us do this. We can use the sizeof() function as in this example:

$num = sizeof($var_array); // 5

You’ll notice that the sizeof() function counts every item in the array regardless of whether it's empty. The other function is count(), which is an alias for the sizeof() function.

Some search engines, like AOL, will automatically remove the trailing / from your URL, and this can cause problems if you’re using these functions to count your array. For instance becomes, and as there are 3 total elements in that array our processor.php would load an author page instead of a book page.

The solution is to create a function that will count only the elements in an array that actually hold data. This will allow you to leave off the ending / or allow any links from AOL'’s search engine to point to the proper place. An example of such a function is:

function count_all($arg)
// skip if argument is empty
if ($arg) {
// not an array, return 1 (base case)
return 1;
// else call recursively for all elements $arg
foreach($arg as $key => $val)
$count += count_all($val);
return $count;

To get your count, access the function like this:

$num = count_all($url_array);

Once you know how many parameters you need, you can define them like this:


Then you can use includes to call up the appropriate script, which will query your database and set up your page. Also if you get a result you’re not expecting, you can simply create your own error page for display to the browser.


The drawback of this method is that every page that's hit is seen by Apache as an error. Thus every hit creates another entry in your server error logs, which effectively destroys their usefulness. So if you use this method you sacrifice your error logs.

Method 3: The ForceType Directive


You'll recall that the thing that trips up Google, and maybe even other search engines, when using the PATH_INFO method is the period in the middle of the URL. So what if there was a way to use that method without the period? Guess what? There is! Its achieved using Apache'’s ForceType directive.

The ForceType directive allows you to override any default MIME types you have set up. Usually it may be used to parse an HTML [6] page as PHP or something similar, but in this case we will use it to parse a file with no extension as PHP.

So instead of using article.php, as we did in method 1, rename that file to just "article". You will then be able to access it like this:, utilizing Apache's look back feature and PATH_INFO variable as described in method 1. But now, Apache doesn’t know to that "article" needs to be parsed as php. To tell it that, you must add the following to your .htaccess file.

ForceType application/x-httpd-php

This is known as a "container". Instead of applying directives to all files, Apache allows you to limit them by filename, location, or directory. You need to create a container as above and place the directives inside it. In this case we use a file container, we identify “article” as the file we're concerned with, and then we list the directives we want applied to this file before closing off the container.

By placing the directive inside the container, we tell Apache to parse "article" as a PHP script even though it has no file extension. This allows us to get rid of the period in the URL that causes the problems, and yet still use the PATH_INFO method to manage our site.


The only drawback to this method as compared with method 2 is that your URLs will be slightly longer. For instance, if I were to use this method on my site, I'd have to use URLs like this: instead of However if you had a site like SitePoint and used this method it wouldn't be such a problem, as the URL ( would make more sense.


I have outlined 3 methods of making search engine friendly URLs - along with their drawbacks. Obviously, you should evaluate these drawbacks before deciding which method to implement. And if you have any questions about the implementation of these techniques, they are oft-discussed topics on the SitePoint Forums [7] so just stop in and make a post.

November 3, 2006

Use Wget to find site broken links

wget --recursive -nd -nv --delete-after | tee wget.out 2>&1
Got it from:

September 16, 2006









September 2, 2006

John Reed Website, worth a read for investment

The BusinessWeek Best-Sellers of 2003

The top-selling business books as reported January through December, 2003

Paperback Business Books

1. FAST FOOD NATION By Eric Schlosser (HarperCollins -- $13.95) The bad news on burgers and fries, by an Atlantic Monthly writer.

2. NICKEL AND DIMED By Barbara Ehrenreich (Owl Books -- $13) How the working poor struggle to make ends meet.

3. THE TIPPING POINT By Malcolm Gladwell (Back Bay -- $14.95) What turns an idea into a hot trend, by a New Yorker writer.

4. THE E-MYTH REVISITED By Michael E. Gerber (HarperBusiness -- $16) A systems approach for small-business success.

5. WHAT COLOR IS YOUR PARACHUTE? By Richard Nelson Bolles (Ten Speed Press -- $17.95) The 2003 edition of the enduring job-search bible.

6. REAL ESTATE RICHES By Dolf de Roos (Warner -- $17.95) Why buildings are better investments than stocks.

7. REAL ESTATE LOOPHOLES By Diane Kennedy, C.P.A., and Garrett Sutton, Esq. (Warner -- $16.95) Tax and legal knowhow.

8. THE RICHEST MAN IN BABYLON By George S. Clason (Signet -- $6.99) Save 10% of what you earn, then pay your bills.

9. RICH DAD'S RETIRE YOUNG, RETIRE RICH By Robert T. Kiyosaki, with Sharon L. Lechter, C.P.A. (Warner -- $17.95) Plan ahead.

10. THE ERNST & YOUNG TAX GUIDE 2003 By Ernst & Young, LLP (Wiley -- $16.95) Dig out those W2s and 1099s.

11. EFFECTIVE PHRASES FOR PERFORMANCE APPRAISALS By James E. Neal Jr. (Neal Publications -- $10.95) How about: ``attaboy''?

12. THE INTELLIGENT INVESTOR, REVISED EDITION By Benjamin Graham, with Jason Zweig (HarperBusiness -- $19.95) The classic explanation of ``value investing.''

13. J.K. LASSER'S YOUR INCOME TAX 2003 By the J.K. Lasser Institute (Wiley -- $16.95) Home-office deductions, the alternative minimum tax, and other traps for the unwary.

14. IT'S NOT HOW GOOD YOU ARE, IT'S HOW GOOD YOU WANT TO BE By Paul Arden (Phaidon -- $7.95) An ad man's aphorisms on success.

15. THE POWER OF FOCUS By Jack Canfield, Mark Victor Hansen, and Les Hewitt (Health Communications -- $12.95) Zoning in on achievement.

Hardcover Business Books

1. GOOD TO GREAT By Jim Collins (HarperBusiness -- $27.50) How run-of-the-mill companies make the leap to excellence.

2. EXECUTION By Larry Bossidy and Ram Charan (Crown Business -- $27.50) Translating business strategies into results.

3. WHAT SHOULD I DO WITH MY LIFE? By Po Bronson (Random House -- $24.95) Overcoming confusion to find your true calling.

4. THE GREAT UNRAVELING By Paul Krugman (Norton -- $25.95) A Princeton University economist takes on the Bush Administration.

5. LEADERSHIP By Rudolph W. Giuliani (Talk Miramax -- $25.95) Hizzoner speaks.

6. THE PRESENT By Spencer Johnson (Doubleday -- $19.95) The pursuit of happiness and success, as described in a fable.

7. THE ONE MINUTE MILLIONAIRE By Mark Victor Hansen and Robert G. Allen (Harmony Books -- $21) Chicken soup for the investor.

8. REEFER MADNESS By Eric Schlosser (Houghton Mifflin -- $23) The underground economy in porn, pot, and migrant labor.

9. THE FIVE DYSFUNCTIONS OF A TEAM By Patrick Lencioni (Jossey-Bass -- $22) Overcoming behavior that obstructs teamwork.

10. TOTAL MONEY MAKEOVER By Dave Ramsey (Thomas Nelson -- $24.99) Getting rid of debt and building up your reserves.

11. THE POWER OF FULL ENGAGEMENT By Jim Loehr and Tony Schwartz (Free Press -- $26) Apply the rigors of the gym to your work and personal life.

12. THE LAWS OF MONEY, THE LESSONS OF LIFE By Suze Orman (Free Press -- $26) More maxims for prospering, from the queen of personal finance.

13. IN AN UNCERTAIN WORLD By Robert E. Rubin and Jacob Weisberg (Random House -- $35) The former Treasury Secretary tells why Clintonomics worked.

14. PURPLE COW By Seth Godin (Portfolio -- $19.95) Emulate Krispy Kreme and Dutch Boy paints, and astonish your customers.

15. RE-IMAGINE! By Tom Peters (DK Publishing -- $30) ``Think beautiful...think weird'' and other instructions, in an eye-popping format.

BusinessWeek's Best-Seller List is based on a survey of chain and independent booksellers that carry a broad selection of books on economics, management, sales and marketing, small business, investing, personal finance, and careers. Well over 1,000 retail outlets nationwide are represented. Current rankings are based on a weighted analysis of unit sales.

August 20, 2006



偶经常去前门的都一处烧麦馆,到不是贪恋里边的烧麦,而是钟情于里边的酸辣黄瓜条,自认为虽然价格贵了点(五快钱一小碟,直径不超过十厘米的那种碟子,而 且也只是码放着寥寥数根而已),但是味道超级爽口,舔中带酸,还伴着淡淡的辣味,冰冰凉凉清爽的不得了,在别的饭店从未吃到过。于是今天就琢磨着在家里自 己做了一盘,没想到效果非常好,和店里的味道一模一样,晚餐的时候摆上桌得到了老公的强烈支持!














August 9, 2006

GVIM 7.0 and netrw

Recently I installed gvim7.0 on my windows XP and I am happy with the new spell check feature. However, I can not remotely write to a ftp file anymore by using "e". I used to be able to do that with gvim6.3. The issues lies in the netrw vim plugin.

To solve this problem, I had to get to the netrw.vim plugin webpage ( and install the latest version (version 102).

To install it, you have to gunzip it first. This is insane because gunzip is not native to Windows. Although I do have it on my machine through unixutils, I don't think many other Windows XPs have it.

Anyway, after installing the latest version, the problem seems to be fixed. I miss the old good days that vim (and gvim) just works out of box.

August 1, 2006

mail-to-blog for wordpress has a good plugin (named postie) for wordpress to support mail-to-blog, supporting picture and attachment.

June 29, 2006


My wife might be pregnant yesterday. At least according to the testing tick we bought. How wonderful that is! We are being cautious and will wait for a few more days to confirm it before announcing it. :-) Sweet. Shu......, Keept it a serect!

iLBC Codec

iLBC is the Best Codec over IP network.

It is the codec used by Skype and many other IM clients. It is open, FREE, and a standard.

Find more about it, incuding the the source code of a reference implementation at:

June 28, 2006

CSS, List and Float

Very nice tutorial and examples on CSS, List and Float

June 27, 2006

SNMP On Linux

To Add a mib file to the tool, do the following:
mkdir $HOME/.snmp
mkdir $HOME/.snmp/mibs
cp MY-MIB.txt $HOME/.snmp/mibs

And Then Add the following lines to the file ~/.snmp/snmp.conf

 mibs +MY-MIB 

Note MY-MIB here is the MIB Module name, not the Mib file name.

You can use the following command to list your new mib

 snmptranslate -Tp -IR ModuleName

June 26, 2006

Fix for VIM7 HTML Syntax File

A minor bug in the default VIM7 html syntax file is that spell check is not applied to paragraphs. Adding the following line to line 157 fixes that:

Write using HTML and CSS

Using HTML and CSS to write a book or an article

June 22, 2006

Power Talk

Watched a video seminar on how to communicate better by George Walther.

I found the summary sheeet on his website very useful:

June 12, 2006

June 10, 2006

Remebering Key Signature

  • No sharps or flats is C major
  • One flat is F major
  • For more than one flat, the (major) key is the next-to-last flat.
  • For any number of sharps, take the last sharp and go up one semitone to get the (major) key.
More at


作者:淦立康 来源:中国原创音乐联盟












(1)只会使用主和弦、下属和弦、属和弦(或属七和弦)等正和弦及Ⅱ级小和弦、 Ⅲ级小和弦、Ⅵ级小和弦等副和弦的初级模仿阶段。即在C调中只会使用:C、Am、Em、F、G、G7、Am7、Em7、Dm7、D7、C7和弦。



本 书中涉及到“5和弦”的歌曲有:《愚公移山》《孔雀东南飞》《为你》《干杯朋友》《只有你陪我一起唱歌》《自由自在》。本书中涉及到和弦不变而外声部音下 行的歌曲有:《为你》《你哪里下雪了吗》,乐曲有:《人们的梦》《旅途》。和弦编配技术的发展除了使我们会用更多的和弦外,还使我们对和弦之间的连接有了 更深的认识,以前似是而非的东西经过一番争论也基本有了定论。

如:C→Em,D→#Fm,E→#Gm,F→Am,G→Bm,A→#Cm,bB→ Dm等。
如:C→Am,D→Bm,E→#Cm,F→Dm,G→Em,A→#Fm,bB→ Gm,等。




在大调歌曲中三级和弦后接二级和弦一般来说是不好的,即在大调歌曲中,Ⅲm→ Ⅱm不好、Ⅲm→Ⅱ7不好。

上 述所述是当前比较流行的和弦编配原则,这些原则得到了绝大部分编曲人的认可。你可能会举出一些不符合这些原则的例子,但我要告诉你有这样的情况存在:①一 些编曲人执迷不悟②一些编曲人死不改悔③一些编曲人初学乍练④所举的例子是以前编曲水平不高时的作品。⑤特殊情况的灵活处理。




接着就是对音乐的分析,由于此教材面对的接触电脑音乐不长 时间的朋友,所以不能太复杂的,大家细细听这首歌,听听伴奏是由哪几个乐器组成的?不要求把所有的乐器都作出来,可以有自己编曲方法,如果对编曲没把握的 朋友,就参考音乐提供的乐器,能作得有多象就作多象,毕竟那是音乐制作人作出来的作品,不管经验还是各方面都比我们强,不知道大家听出来了没?有几种乐器 声音?是不是有钢琴的声音,弦乐的声音.贝司和鼓的声音?相信这几种乐器大家都可以听的出来,那好,我们就按这几种乐器来学习怎么用软件制作MIDI,制 作MIDI要求各种乐器的弹奏方法和在歌曲的作用了解清楚,这很重要,否则都无从下手,如果对此方面还不了解的朋友,建议多听音乐,听听配器,且每种乐器 所起的重要和弹奏方法,在此教材稍微介绍上一点,主要是抛砖引玉作用,作得好不好还看大家以后的努力程度.细细听完这首<童话>以后,我们对 配器也了解了,不了解的朋友继续听,然后用乐器吉他或者电子琴把谱子写出来,写的越详细越好,这也就是扒带,这对学习有很大的帮助,多扒好的歌曲,对提高 配器各方面提高特别有效,好吧,那我们就开始制作吧,估计大家都等急了.

新建MIDI轨,按上面提到的乐器,我们需要建立四个MIDI轨,建MIDI大家都懂了吧, 点击右键选择Add midi track,我们一轨一轨来制作,首先是钢琴轨,钢琴在这首歌曲中很重要,是整个歌曲节奏和旋律的形成,所有需要两轨钢琴,一轨是旋律,另一轨是节奏.我 们先来作节奏部分的,在我们新建的第一轨作为钢琴节奏制作,制作前要先调入软音源,按F11,出来以后鼠标左建点击音色栏,选择Hypersonic音 源,进去音源界面以后钢琴音色,都知道哪个了吧?也就是Acoustic piano,大钢琴音色,选择好以后,回到MIDI轨页面,在轨道的左边选择上所选的音源,也就上MIDI轨左边设置里面的OUT:里面选择我们所用的音 源,在通道设置里面选择通道1,这是我们要做的.这个选择好以后就开始音符的输入,选择菜单栏的MIDI选项,进去后打开第一个选项Open key editor,进行音符的输入,还有就是歌曲的速度设置,这首歌曲在75左右,关于谱子那就是自己所扒的内容了,实在扒不出来就到网上下载谱子,但那是简 谱,还是需要自己配上和弦节奏,这都是关于乐理方面的知识了,学过吉他的朋友应该很容易明白,没有学过吉他的朋友就学些基础乐理吧,很容易明白的,这是制 作所必须懂的东西,还要根据自己对钢琴的弹奏方法进行音符的输入,这是一个示范曲,大家可以听听,作得不是很好,主要是为教材所用.示范曲如下:


作完第一轨钢琴以后,接着作的就是第二轨旋律钢琴,制作步骤跟上面一样,选好音源以后就开始 写入音符,音色和上面的一样,是大钢琴音色,所写的音符也就是自己所扒的内容了,具体方法上面也提过了,多扒慢慢的速度就快了,所有这些都需要反复的去 练,关于扒带的方法我会在另一篇教材说,详细的跟大家说扒带的具体步骤.在这同样为大家提供一个示范曲,作的很粗糙,希望大家别见笑,示范曲02如下:


以上说的钢琴音轨的制作,通过这样大体上是完成,当然这是针对接触软件时间不长的朋友,真正 作起来还有很多东西,比如说每个音符的音量,力度等等参数的调节,这是一方面,另外所输入的音符也不是那么简单,这里主要是配合教材和初学的朋友,音符还 编得更细腻些,这样听来感觉会更好,象是一个钢琴师在演奏,这是我们学习的目标.

好吧,钢琴制作部分就想讲到这,现在已经是深夜2点半了,自己也瞌睡了,明天我会继续把剩下 的部分讲完,剩下部分包括弦乐,贝司和鼓的制作,还有最后的导出保存,都在明天的课里讲给大家,感谢所有看此教材的朋友,我的目的只有一个,方便大家学 习,少走弯路,然后实现自己的音乐之梦,期待你们的原创作品!


继续:上节课我们讲了钢琴部分的制作,相信大家对MIDI 制作都有所了解,也应该知道作MIDI需要哪些知识,接着我们这节课讲的是剩下乐器的MIDI制作,包括弦乐,贝司和鼓.讲完这些以后就是讲最后的后期调 整和导出作品,通过这两集教材,大家对MIDI制作有个初步的了解,且自己要动手制作,不作永远都不会作,多实践,多思考,这就是学习方法.

关于弦乐的制作,弦乐在歌曲主要是铺底的作用,使整首歌曲听起来不是很空,感觉会更好些,开 始制作弦乐的部分可以根据和弦走向来制作,当然弦乐不是简单的和弦,它还含有很多成分,这要靠自己以后去细细听每一首作品,然后把它扒下来自己练习,多练 习就会了,在这首<童话>的弦乐制作中,我选用了两轨来制作,一轨是铺底,另一轨是作旋律,让歌曲的旋律感更加明显些,关于弦乐该怎么作?我 会以另一个教材跟大家说明,到时候会集中我们常用的几种乐器的编曲方法,好的,我们先做的铺底弦乐,制作方法跟前面所说的一样,把音色选好,注意通道的对 应,否则会没声音输出,然后就是输入音符,这里所作的也是根据和弦的走向也配的弦乐,以下是示范曲03,作的有些急,为教材所用.


作完铺底弦乐以后,我们来作旋律弦乐,这主要是为了突出旋律性,大家每作一轨目的都要明确, 到底这轨是作什么?在歌曲起的什么作用,该怎么作?从歌曲哪个地方开始进等等,把这些问题考虑清楚以后,就可以往钢琴卷里写入音符,注意音符的节拍等等, 同样,在这举出了一个示范曲04,这弦乐是在歌曲中间加入的,突出歌曲的层次感,作得不是很细,仅供大家参考.


上面介绍的是弦乐部分的制作,接下来我们讲的是贝司的制作,贝司是低音吉他,它主要作用是弥 补鼓的低音部分,加入贝司以后歌曲总体感觉会更稳重,更扎实些,开始接触MIDI制作的朋友,贝司可以采用走跟音的方法,等以后熟练以后,自己再尝试加些 花子,这很重要,有好多歌曲贝司的花子就是一个亮点,很不错的效果,这就要靠大家以后听音乐去领会,学习贝司该怎么作,在这里同样提供一个示范曲05,仅 供大家参考.这贝司做法就是走跟音,作的比较简单,这样大家更容易明白!


最后一轨就是鼓的制作了,这稍微复杂些,刚开始接触电脑音乐的朋友作起来稍微麻烦些,首先你 要对架子鼓有所了解,鼓是哪几部分组成的,每部分都起什么作用,这首歌曲该配什么鼓节奏,这都是制作鼓之前要考虑好的,看平时鼓Loop的积累了,要作到 听到一段旋律就该配什么的鼓节奏,现在大部分软件都提供有鼓Loop,这样作起来就比较方便,所以大家还是需要经常练,随便作一段旋律,或者用吉他弹奏一 段旋律,然后自己配上鼓,弹吉他的朋友这部分很容易学会,因为他们听的歌曲多,各种各样的鼓节奏都比较熟悉些,不会吉他的朋友也没关系,多扒带,然后多积 累些鼓的Loop,这对鼓轨的制作很有帮助,这首<童话>的鼓是中间才起,也是为了突出层次感的作用,这里所才用的鼓音源是常见的软音源 Lm7,这鼓音源不是很好,还有更好的音源,虚拟鼓手等等,大家以后可以多尝试,选择自己喜欢的音源,为了大家更能简单操作,就把所有鼓部分都在一轨内制 作完成,记住鼓的通道是第十通道,这也别弄错了.同样在这里也提供有示范曲06,这是写教材时作的鼓,制作得不细腻,仅供大家参考.


通过以上的介绍,全部乐器的制作就完成了,接着就是后期工作,如果想作的细腻的话,要对音符 进行力度和音量等调节,还有音规的声相调节,这很重要,如果不进行声相的调整,整个乐器就会混都一块,给人感觉会比较乱,还有音轨间的均衡,哪些音量需要 大些,那些的音量需要小些,这都需要我们后期的调节,调节可以在软件里完成,最好就是在软件里完成,当然也有些朋友是分轨导出,然后输入音频编辑软件,在 音频编辑软件里进行声相和均衡的调节,这也行的,看自己哪样更方便,效果更好就怎样?制作音乐本来就不是在一个软件里完成,需要几个软件综合起来使用,这 样出来的作品才是好的作品,每个软件都有它的长处,我们就好好利用软件的长处来制作相关部分,发挥好每个软件的长处,例如SAM2496混音效果很好,大 家可以分轨导出音乐,然后导入SAM2496里进行混音处理,这都要需要自己灵活去处理,多动脑子,多想想该怎么作更好,怎样好我们就怎样作就行了。

最后要讲的是导出作品,当我们调好各各乐器的均衡以后就可以导出作品了,导出时有些地方需要 注意的,否则会出现导不出音乐的现象, 用鼠标点一下工具栏的箭头工具,然后按住鼠标左键不放,在音轨的上面把有音乐的部分全部选择上,选择后会变成暗蓝色,接着在菜单栏里的File下面选择 Export里的Audio Mixdown,打开对话框后,选择保存类型,一般都选择MP3格式.然后还有精度的选择,集成声卡的朋友可以选择 64KBit/m.44.100khz.stereo.在Output里选择Stereo out(Stereo),Channes也选择Stereo,别的选项就用默认值吧.然后选择路径,按Save就可以把作品保存好了.最后就慢慢欣赏自己 的作品吧.好吧,本次教材就讲到这吧,由于写的时间比较紧,所以难免有漏的或者说不对的地方,还希望大家多多包涵。

May 24, 2006

Useful AWK script

HANDY ONE-LINERS FOR AWK                                  22 July 2003
compiled by Eric Pement version 0.22
Latest version of this file is usually at:


Unix: awk '/pattern/ {print "$1"}' # standard Unix shells
DOS/Win: awk '/pattern/ {print "$1"}' # okay for DJGPP compiled
awk "/pattern/ {print \"$1\"}" # required for Mingw32

Most of my experience comes from version of GNU awk (gawk) compiled for Win32. Note in particular that DJGPP compilations permit the awk script to follow Unix quoting syntax '/like/ {"this"}'. However, the user must know that single quotes under DOS/Windows do not protect the redirection arrows (<, >) nor do they protect pipes (|). Both are special symbols for the DOS/CMD command shell and their special meaning is ignored only if they are placed within "double quotes." Likewise, DOS/Win users must remember that the percent sign (%) is used to mark DOS/Win environment variables, so it must be doubled (%%) to yield a single percent sign visible to awk.

If I am sure that a script will NOT need to be quoted in Unix, DOS, or CMD, then I normally omit the quote marks. If an example is peculiar to GNU awk, the command 'gawk' will be used. Please notify me if you find errors or new commands to add to this list (total length under 65 characters). I usually try to put the shortest script first.


# double space a file
awk '1;{print ""}'
awk 'BEGIN{ORS="\n\n"};1'

# double space a file which already has blank lines in it. Output file
# should contain no more than one blank line between lines of text.
# NOTE: On Unix systems, DOS lines which have only CRLF (\r\n) are
# often treated as non-blank, and thus 'NF' alone will return TRUE.
awk 'NF{print $0 "\n"}'

# triple space a file
awk '1;{print "\n"}'


# precede each line by its line number FOR THAT FILE (left alignment).
# Using a tab (\t) instead of space will preserve margins.
awk '{print FNR "\t" $0}' files*

# precede each line by its line number FOR ALL FILES TOGETHER, with tab.
awk '{print NR "\t" $0}' files*

# number each line of a file (number on left, right-aligned)
# Double the percent signs if typing from the DOS command prompt.
awk '{printf("%5d : %s\n", NR,$0)}'

# number each line of file, but only print numbers if line is not blank
# Remember caveats about Unix treatment of \r (mentioned above)
awk 'NF{$0=++a " :" $0};{print}'
awk '{print (NF? ++a " :" :"") $0}'

# count lines (emulates "wc -l")
awk 'END{print NR}'

# print the sums of the fields of every line
awk '{s=0; for (i=1; i<=NF; i++) s=s+$i; print s}'
# add all fields in all lines and print the sum awk
'{for (i=1; i<=NF; i++) s=s+$i}; END{print s}'
# print every line after replacing each field with its absolute value awk
'{for (i=1; i<=NF; i++) if ($i < i =" -$i;" i="1;" i =" ($i" total =" total"> max {max=$1; maxline=$0};
END{ print max, maxline}'

# print the number of fields in each line, followed by the line
awk '{ print NF ":" $0 } '

# print the last field of each line
awk '{ print $NF }'

# print the last field of the last line
awk '{ field = $NF }; END{ print field }'

# print every line with more than 4 fields
awk 'NF > 4'

# print every line where the value of the last field is > 4
awk '$NF > 4'


# IN UNIX ENVIRONMENT: convert DOS newlines (CR/LF) to Unix format
awk '{sub(/\r$/,"");print}' # assumes EACH line ends with Ctrl-M

# IN UNIX ENVIRONMENT: convert Unix newlines (LF) to DOS format
awk '{sub(/$/,"\r");print}

# IN DOS ENVIRONMENT: convert Unix newlines (LF) to DOS format
awk 1

# IN DOS ENVIRONMENT: convert DOS newlines (CR/LF) to Unix format
# Cannot be done with DOS versions of awk, other than gawk:
gawk -v BINMODE="w" '1' infile >outfile

# Use "tr" instead.
tr -d \r outfile # GNU tr version 1.22 or higher

# delete leading whitespace (spaces, tabs) from front of each line
# aligns all text flush left
awk '{sub(/^[ \t]+/, ""); print}'

# delete trailing whitespace (spaces, tabs) from end of each line
awk '{sub(/[ \t]+$/, "");print}'

# delete BOTH leading and trailing whitespace from each line
awk '{gsub(/^[ \t]+|[ \t]+$/,"");print}'
awk '{$1=$1;print}' # also removes extra space between fields

# insert 5 blank spaces at beginning of each line (make page offset)
awk '{sub(/^/, " ");print}'

# align all text flush right on a 79-column width
awk '{printf "%79s\n", $0}' file*

# center all text on a 79-character width
awk '{l=length();s=int((79-l)/2); printf "%"(s+l)"s\n",$0}' file*

# substitute (find and replace) "foo" with "bar" on each line
awk '{sub(/foo/,"bar");print}' # replaces only 1st instance
gawk '{$0=gensub(/foo/,"bar",4);print}' # replaces only 4th instance
awk '{gsub(/foo/,"bar");print}' # replaces ALL instances in a line

# substitute "foo" with "bar" ONLY for lines which contain "baz"
awk '/baz/{gsub(/foo/, "bar")};{print}'

# substitute "foo" with "bar" EXCEPT for lines which contain "baz"
awk '!/baz/{gsub(/foo/, "bar")};{print}'

# change "scarlet" or "ruby" or "puce" to "red"
awk '{gsub(/scarlet|ruby|puce/, "red"); print}'

# reverse order of lines (emulates "tac")
awk '{a[i++]=$0} END {for (j=i-1; j>=0;) print a[j--] }' file*

# if a line ends with a backslash, append the next line to it
# (fails if there are multiple lines ending with backslash...)
awk '/\\$/ {sub(/\\$/,""); getline t; print $0 t; next}; 1' file*

# print and sort the login names of all users
awk -F ":" '{ print $1 | "sort" }' /etc/passwd

# print the first 2 fields, in opposite order, of every line
awk '{print $2, $1}' file

# switch the first 2 fields of every line
awk '{temp = $1; $1 = $2; $2 = temp}' file

# print every line, deleting the second field of that line
awk '{ $2 = ""; print }'

# print in reverse order the fields of every line
awk '{for (i=NF; i>0; i--) printf("%s ",i);printf ("\n")}' file

# remove duplicate, consecutive lines (emulates "uniq")
awk 'a !~ $0; {a=$0}'

# remove duplicate, nonconsecutive lines
awk '! a[$0]++' # most concise script
awk '!($0 in a) {a[$0];print}' # most efficient script

# concatenate every 5 lines of input, using a comma separator
# between fields
awk 'ORS=%NR%5?",":"\n"' file


# print first 10 lines of file (emulates behavior of "head")
awk 'NR <>1{exit};1'

# print the last 2 lines of a file (emulates "tail -2")
awk '{y=x "\n" $0; x=$0};END{print y}'

# print the last line of a file (emulates "tail -1")
awk 'END{print}'

# print only lines which match regular expression (emulates "grep")
awk '/regex/'

# print only lines which do NOT match regex (emulates "grep -v")
awk '!/regex/'

# print the line immediately before a regex, but not the line
# containing the regex
awk '/regex/{print x};{x=$0}'
awk '/regex/{print (x=="" ? "match on line 1" : x)};{x=$0}'

# print the line immediately after a regex, but not the line
# containing the regex
awk '/regex/{getline;print}'

# grep for AAA and BBB and CCC (in any order)
awk '/AAA/; /BBB/; /CCC/'

# grep for AAA and BBB and CCC (in that order)
awk '/AAA.*BBB.*CCC/'

# print only lines of 65 characters or longer
awk 'length > 64'

# print only lines of less than 65 characters
awk 'length < nr="=" nr="=" nr="=" nr="=">

May 22, 2006



原 料:
材料: 鱿鱼,芹菜各150克,红辣椒1个,大蒜2粒,姜3片 调味料: (A)沙茶酱,酱油各1/2小匙,米酒,鸡精各1小匙。 (B)淀粉水1小匙。


Free Anti-Virus Software

Free Anti-Virus Software:
AVG Free Edition, (High recommended)
avast! Home Edition
AntiVir Personal Edition.

May 16, 2006


Some Useful VIMRC Definitions:

function! ShowFunc()
let oldmake= &makeprg
let &makeprg= 'listfunc'

silent! make%

let &makeprg=oldmake

"To enable restoring (for an xterm):
"set t_ti=^[7^[[r^[[?47h t_te=^[[?47l^[8
"(Where ^[ is an , type CTRL-V to insert it)
set t_ti=^[7^[[r^[[?47h
set t_te=^[[?47l^[8

set ignorecase
"map j_
"map k_
"set wmh=0
map ^[j j
map ^[k k

map :cn
map :cp
map :grep * -r :cw :set syntax=off k
map :on
map :w :make :cw
map :call ShowFunc()

augroup filetypedetect
au! BufRead,BufNewFile *.inc setfiletype make
augroup END

" Automatically reload .vimrc when changing
autocmd! bufwritepost .vimrc source %

The listfunc script:
ctags -x --c-types=f -u $1 | gawk '{printf("%s:%s: %s\n",$4,$3,$1) > "/dev/stderr"}'

May 13, 2006



#do not change unless you know what you are doing


postscript("drum.eps", horizontal=FALSE, onefile=FALSE,paper="special",height=10,width=14);

for (ii in levels(f)){
lines(t,i*grid+v,type="s"); text(-5,i*grid+grid/2,tones[as.numeric(ii)-tones_start+1],cex=1.0);

May 12, 2006


MIDI Format is explaine in this website.

The clock unit in the CSV file generated by the midicsv tool is in terms of PPQN Clock.

The rate PPQN ticks is calcuated as follows:

MicrosPerPPQN = MicroTempo/Division

MicroTempo=60,000,000/BPM(Beat Per Minute)

Divison is also called Timebase. It is specified in the midi file header. For hardware Midi equipments, this is a fixed value. For software generated midi files, this usually is also a application-dependent fixed value

May 11, 2006

Plot Midi Drum Line

Following the story of midicsv that converts midi to csv, I wrote some scripts to plot the drum line from an exising midi file.

First, run the midicsv tool to creat the csv file:

Second, run the awk script to filter out everything other than drum beats. The script (filter.awk)

if ($3 ~ /ote/ &&amp;amp; NF==6 && $4==9)
Now, plot the drum line in R (get it from Here is the script (midiplot.r)
for (i in levels(f)){
Above is the plot result.


This must be the first tool for midi: midicsv. It converts any midi to a human-readable CSV file, and also converts the CSV file back to midi. This is fantastic because now I can get a really-good-sound midi, convert it to midi, and see now it beats the drum. I was trying to write a midi parser based on midi2abc, but thought there must already exist something like it giving that MIDI has been around for a while.

What a delightful day!

Thanks, John Walker!


A typical Makefile with Patterns:


%.o: %.c $(HEADERS)
$(CC) $(CFLAGS) -c $<

$@: The target
$<: The name of the first prerequisite
$^: The names of all the prerequisites

Less common:

$?: The names of al lthe prerequisites that are newer than the target

AutoIt3 with DLL

Finally I got AutoIt3 to work with a DLL I wrote from C and compiled with MingW. Now I can start writing native windows applications with integration of native C code. Nice.


MMA is a great midi generator. You give it the chord, and the style (rock, folk, waltz,etc), and it generates a rich midi file for you. It is open source software with fantastic documentation and code. If you are even remotely interested in MIDI and music, you definitely should check it out.

abcm2ps with UTF-8 Support

Two days ago I got an email from the Jef, the author of abcm2ps, about adding UTF-8 support to abcm2ps. This is something I emailed him a while ago and he never got a chance to do it. Now he is planning to do it. That's great. We are starting with Chinese UTF-8 support, with help from the package called "cnprint", which produces postscript file from a text file and a TTF font file.

May 8, 2006

槐花吃法 ( Black Locust Flowers Recipe)

嫩绿色的浓荫里, 串串白色的槐花香气浓郁,味道香甜。槐花还含有多种微生素和微量元素,具有较高的营养价值。槐花有多种吃法既可加面粉蒸食、做饼,又可凉拌、炒食。

* 烙槐花

主料 槐花。最好是尚未完全开放的槐花。择净,用开水烫过,漂洗(清除槐毒)。


* 槐花鸡蛋汤
1. 汤锅上火,葱花、花椒爆锅,加水、海米、精盐、烧开。把准备好的槐花入锅。
2. 鸡蛋2个,加水三四滴打散,待锅中槐花汤烧开,立即将鸡蛋液均匀的浇入锅内,用勺推开,烧开即可。
3. 盛碗时,点大红樱桃二三个配色。

March 5, 2006

Web Font

Some examples of good web font:

* body{font-family:arial,sans-serif}
* TD.txt{font-family:verdana,sans-serif;font-size:small;)

Arial: a sans serif (meaning without serifs—the little doohickeys at the ends of each letter) face that has a streamlined, more modern look, but isn't necessarily easier to read on screen because it's on the narrow side and can look very light in smaller sizes. It's also incredibly boring and looks far too much like the type used by the IRS and other tax agencies, so it can have negative subliminal connotations.

Helvetica: a sans serif face similar to Arial.

Verdana: An extremely easy-to-read sans serif face that's included with the Internet Explorer. Other fonts: Tahoma (a face almost identical to Verdana that comes with Microsoft Office), Arial, or Helvetica.

Comic Sans: This face is informal and friendly, which is great for some sites, but not professional enough for others.

February 27, 2006

Recipe for Korean Cooking

























































7. 热热的松子茶是韩国冬天的驱寒甜品,核果类富含优质油脂成分,对于心血管疾病、美容、抗老化等都有助益。





February 18, 2006

Running Vmware Player as a service

credit to
for this acticle.

If you're a VMware enthusiast, you've probably on more than one occasion
wanted to log off from your computer while leaving your virtual machines
(VMs) running. Or, maybe you've wanted selected VMs to start as soon as
your system boots so that your host system can log on to a domain
controller (DC) running inside one of the host machine's VMs. Sound too
good to be true? That's what I thought. I assumed that logging off of my
computer and having my VMs remain running was an unattainable dream. But
I discovered that getting VMs to run as services is possible and very
easy to configure.

Tools for Service
VMware doesn't natively support running its software as a service, but
configuring VMware Workstation 4.0 VMs to run as services is almost as
easy as tying your shoes. All you need to get started are two
tried-and-true Windows resource kit tools: instsrv.exe and srvany.exe.
Both tools are available as free downloads. Go to, enter Windows 2003 Resource Kit
Tools in the Keywords field, and click Go. Then, click the Windows
Server 2003 Resource Kit Tools Download button at the Windows Server
2003 Resource Kit Tools Web page to download rktools.exe-which contains
the most recent versions of Instsrv and Srvany-and run the executable to
install the tools on your system.

Note that you can install the Windows 2003 resource kit tools on a
Windows 2003 or Windows XP system. If your host system runs Windows 2000
or Windows NT, you can acquire Instsrv and Srvany from the Win2K or NT
resource kit CD-ROMs or you can install the Windows 2003 resource kit
tools on an XP system and just copy Instsrv and Srvany from the XP
system to the %windir% folder on your Win2K or NT host system. The
Windows 2003 versions of Instsrv and Srvany run on the earlier OSs
without any problems.

Getting Started
Installing the resource kit tools updates the system path to include the
resource kit installation folder. Updating the path requires a reboot,
so be sure to reboot your system after installing the resource kit.
Alternatively, you can copy Instsrv and Srvany to a folder already in
the path, such as the folder C:\windows\system32.

With the resource kit files in place, your next task is to determine the
location of the VMware application's vmware.exe file. I used the default
settings when installing VMware, so the path I needed was C:\program
files\vmware\vmware workstation\vmware.exe.

The last bit of information that you need before you configure the new
service is the path to the configuration file of the VM that you want to
turn into a service. This file is in the folder in which the VM was
created and has a .vmx extension. All my VMs are stored on my system's E
drive, so the path to the .vmx file of the VM that I want to run as a
service is E:\vms\w2k1\w2k1.vmx. When you have the vmware.exe path and a
VM's .vmx path information, you're ready to create the service.

Creating the Service
First, decide on a name for the service. I prefer to preface the name of
the VM with VM_ to form the service name. For example, I would give my
VM named W2K1 the service name VM_W2K1. After you decide on the service
name, you can use the following syntax to set up the service:


So a sample command might be

instsrv VM_W2K1
Now you need to modify the service's parameters by using a registry
editor and the Microsoft Management Console (MMC) Windows Services
snap-in. In the registry editor, navigate to the
subkey. Right-click the VM service name, select New, then click Key.
Name the new subkey Parameters.

Right-click the Parameters subkey, select New, then click String Value.
Name the new value Application. Double-click the Application value and
enter the path to the vmware.exe file on your host system (put the
pathname in double quotation marks), followed by -x, followed by the
path to the VM's .vmx file (put the pathname in double quotation marks).
For my configuration, I used the string value "C:\program
files\vmware\vmware workstation\vmware.exe" -x "e:\vms\w2k1\w2k1.vmx".
Close the registry editor.

Open the Windows Services snap-in. Locate and right-click the newly
created VM service and select Properties. In the service's Properties
dialog box, click the Log On tab. Ensure that Local System account is
selected, and select the Allow service to interact with desktop check
box, which Figure 1 shows. Click OK to close the service Properties
dialog box. You can now use the Windows Services snap-in to start your
VM service. By default, the service is configured as automatic, so the
VM will start when your system starts. Each VM that you configure to run
as a service will appear in its own window on the desktop. Because the
VM is running as a service, you'll now be able to log off of your
system, and the VM will continue to run.

February 15, 2006

How to Install FreeNX on Ubuntu

1. Update your /etc/apt/sources.list with the following settings. (This is from
the Ubuntu Guide)

## Add comments (##) in front of any line to remove it from being checked.
## Use the following sources.list at your own risk.
## You may replace "us" with your country code to get the closest mirror.

deb breezy main restricted
deb-src breezy main restricted

## MAJOR BUG FIX UPDATES produced after the final release
deb breezy-updates main restricted
deb-src breezy-updates main restricted

deb breezy-security main restricted
deb-src breezy-security main restricted

deb breezy-security universe
deb-src breezy-security universe

## UNIVERSE AND MULTIVERSE REPOSITORY (Unsupported by Ubuntu. Use at own risk.)
deb breezy universe multiverse
deb-src breezy universe multiverse

## BACKPORTS REPOSITORY (Unsupported. May contain illegal packages. Use at own risk.)
deb breezy-backports main restricted universe multiverse
deb-src breezy-backports main restricted universe multiverse

## PLF REPOSITORY (Unsupported. May contain illegal packages. Use at own risk.)
deb breezy free non-free
deb-src breezy free non-free

## For FreeNX only
deb breezy-seveas freenx


2. apt-get update
3. apt-get install binutils
4. apt-get install ssh
5. apt-get install freenx, (choose custom keys after installation)

6. add the user you want to give access. This will copy the generated public key to the right place (.ssh/authorized_keys2) of their home directories.

This command adds the user "ubuntu"

root@vmware:/home/admin# nxserver --adduser ubuntu
NX> 100 NXSERVER - Version 1.4.0-44 OS (GPL)
NX> 1000 NXNODE - Version 1.4.0-44 OS (GPL)
NX> 716 Public key added to: /home/admin/.ssh/authorized_keys2
NX> 1001 Bye.
NX> 999 Bye

7. Now update the nxserver with the user's password
root@vmware:/home/admin# nxserver --passwd ubuntu
NX> 100 NXSERVER - Version 1.4.0-44 OS (GPL)
New password:
Password changed.
NX> 999 Bye

Once that’s been done, install an NX client, there are plenty available from the NoMachine web site.

At this point you should be able to configure your connection and you’re almost ready to go. If you try to log in it won’t let you as you need to copy the key. The custom key lives in /var/lib/nxserver/home/.ssh/client.id_dsa.key. Copy this over to your client host and import it. You should now be ready to log into a fully functional NX environment.